ABSTRACT: Several approaches to computerized psychiatric diagnosis (Bayesian probability, linear discriminate function, and logical decision tree) have been used in the past. Recently, however, computer programs have been developed to make DSM-III diagnoses. DSM-III's explicit criteria aid development of such programs, while DSM-III's complexity allows such programs to be clinically useful. Common characteristics of these programs are features that help to structure and shorten the user's interaction with the program. Examples of structuring aids include screening questions and incorporation of DSM-III's decision trees for differential diagnosis. These programs also include features that help users learn about DSM-III. The potential for such programs, as well as reasons why they may not be fully accepted, are discussed.
ABSTRACT: Computer-based simulations provide one vehicle for making theory on social policy come to life and for developing shared experiences. However, computerized simulations often involve extensive front-end technical work. Electronic mail offers an alternative method for constructing simulations. This paper focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications.
ABSTRACT: The present paper describes the process by which a multiple-level collaborative database system was designed. By clearly elaborating the various design goals it was possible to build a system through which ongoing program evaluation efforts can be easily managed without disrupting the service delivery process. At the same time, both departmental information needs and service-specific needs can be met in an efficient manner.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if a computerized self-help stress coping program, based upon cognitive learning theory, IS effective in reducing stress in adult males. Thirty adult male juvenile counselors were randomly assigned to an experimental or non-participating control group. A computerized se f-help stress coping program was used over a five week period by those in the experimental group. As hypothesized, no differences were found between the groups on the variables of occupational environmental stress and trait anxiety. However, decreases in personal strain and state anxiety were found along with increases in personal resources. The factor of social support was found to account for the greatest amount of variance in all dependent variables. It was concluded that stress coping computer programs can provide some relief for situational types of stress.
ABSTRACT: The responsibilities of administrators in human service agencies require that they receive at least some training in computer use. This article reports on results of a survey of computer content in administration courses among 80 graduate schools of social work throughout the country and 207 instructors in these schools. Results show that 89% of schools offered one or more administration courses integrating content on computer use, and 43% of all administration courses reported included such material. Faculty rated computer training as very important and emphasized topics such as data analysis and data-base management.
ABSTRACT: A combination of economic, demographic, and political factors is pressuring health care providers into improving discharge planning and long-term care services for their clients, particularly the elderly and poor. Case management, with its emphasis on patient assessment, monitoring, and program evaluation, is one tool increasingly adopted to accomplish these goals. This paper examines the application of computer technology to case management and describes a computerized, hospital-based case management program for the elderly.
ABSTRACT: A survey of the extent of computerization in social service agencies in Santa Clara county, California, reveals some problems that are commonly experienced by organizations undergoing the transition to a computerized information system, and some recommendations for workshops to meet their needs.
Highlights of Presentations and Discussion
The potential clinical role of the computer in mental health settings has been debated for several decades. On the one hand are those who enthusiastically point to numerous research studies demonstrating the potential clinical benefits-more accurate diagnosis, rapid retrieval of relevant clinical information, and even direct treatment-utilizing computer technology. On the other hand, skeptics simply ask, "If this is so helpful, where are all the clinicians who are using it?" This difference represents the basic paradox of clinical computer applications: Although numerous applications have been developed, and some have been rigorously tested and found helpful, there are very few that have been integrated into the daily activities of the practicing clinician.
Acceptance and Utilization Problems
General Mental Health Information Systems
Medical Records and Quality Assurance
Special Clinical Applications
Computing as an Abundant Resource
Convergence of Information Technologies
Workstations and Personal Computers
Artificial Intelligence Research
Implications for Mental Health Research
Classification of Mental Health Computing Applications
Research Activities and Their Methodologies
Barriers to Acceptance
Clinical Evaluation Research
Chronic Mental Illness
Computer Needs and the NIMH Role
General Methodological Issues
Exhibit 1. Illustrative Scale to Quantify Usage of System Reports
Impact of Microcomputers Utilization as an Independent and Dependent Variable
Empirical Studies of Successes and Failures
Increasing Clinical Applications
Psychological Testing and Interviewing
Research to Support New Applications
Diffusion and Implementation
Issues Needing attention
Research Approaches and Suggestions
Dissemination and Impact
The Funding and Review Process