U of TX at Arlington School of Social Work Prof. Dick Schoech, schoech@uta.edu
SOCW 6355-001  Advanced Use of  IT in Human Services, Thurs2-4:50pm http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/courses/6355/
  Classroom=SWC A114; Office-A214, Hrs: Tues 12-2 & Weds 12-2

  This is the copy handed out in Session 1.  Updates of due dates are made on the homepage and may not be made on this syllabus.

SOCW 6355 Syllabus for Spring 2011



Syllabus Index

Syllabus Topics

Weekly Session Topic

CSWE EPAS statement

 Quick Course Overview

Catalogue description

 Session 1: Course introduction and overview 

Expanded course description

Session 2: IT fundamentals 

Educational objectives

Session 3: Current uses of technology

Learning outcomes

Session 4: IT application development process

Format of course

Session 5: Applying theory

Requirements for course

Session 6: Determining information needs and capacities


Session 7: Hardware & software influences

Major assignments

Session 8: Info storage/retrieval influences

Grading policy & due dates

Session 9: Networking & telecommunications influences

Attendance policy

Session 10: Managing, supporting, evaluating IT

Drop policy

Session 11: Issues and the future

Academic Integrity

Session 12 Presentations of technology solutions

Student support services

Session 13:  Presentations of technology solutions

E-culture  & Sustainability

Session 14: Independent work & tech support


 Session 15: Course wrap up

Council on Social Work Education (CSWE), Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS), Statement on Requirements of the Content Area

4.5 Social Work Practice:  Social work practice content is anchored in the purposes of the social work profession and focuses on strengths, capacities, and resources of client systems in relation to their broader environments. Students learn practice content that encompasses knowledge and skills to work with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. This content includes engaging clients in an appropriate working relationship, identifying issues, problems, needs, resources, and assets; collecting and assessing information; and planning for service delivery. It includes using communication skills, supervision, and consultation. Practice content also includes identifying, analyzing, and implementing empirically based interventions designed to achieve client goals; applying empirical knowledge and technological advances; evaluating program outcomes and practice effectiveness; developing, analyzing, advocating, and providing leadership for policies and services; and promoting social and economic justice. 

UTA Catalogue Description

Provides the knowledge and skills to assess needs/capacities and develop technology-based solutions to individual, group, family, administrative and community problems in any culture. Covers information systems, decision support systems, multimedia, human services software and internet applications. Classes held in classroom and webcam classroom, see http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/courses/6355/syllabus_6355.htm. Prerequisite: DP (Direct Practice) students: SOCW 6325; SOCW 6326 or concurrent enrollment; or SOCW 6336 or concurrent enrollment. CAP (Community and Administrative Practice) students: SOCW 6371 or concurrent enrollment.

Expanded Description of Course Content

Electronic technologies support most complex processes in modern societies, e.g., airline travel.  Technology can support human service practice and make it more accessible and effective.  Many computer and telecommunication tools exist that allow practitioners to find, collect, store, manipulate and present information to support practice decisions and monitor interventions.  Some of these tools are databases, spreadsheets, graphic presentation, multimedia, computer based training, expert systems, performance support systems, distance learning, geographical mapping, simulations, games, assistive devices, smartphones, and the Internet.  Other tools exist that can perform routine social work functions independent of a practitioner, e.g., information & referral, stress reduction, diagnostics, prevention intervention, cognitive interventions, etc.  This course examines information technology-based support tools  and systems, their development, and their use in human service practice. The major student assignments involve developing a personal web page and exploring a technology based solution to a human service problem/situation.  The aim is to make students critical consumers and potential designers of technology based tools and systems. This course is approved as a Direct Practice or Community and Administrative Practice elective for MSSW students. 

Educational Objectives Addressed

SOCW 6355 addresses the following MSSW community and administrative practice concentration objectives.

·         Objective 2. Identify, critically evaluate, and apply appropriate, evidence-informed interventions at the agency or community level

·         Objective 3. Critically analyze and apply a variety of community and administrative theories to practice.

·         Objective 4. Demonstrate skills in ethical and empowerment-based social work practice, taking into account the impact of race, gender, sexual orientation, ability, culture, religion, national origin and other client characteristics in organizations, and communities.

·         Objective 7. Engage in life-long learning and activities to update and improve professional knowledge and skills

This course relates to and advances the program objectives by allowing students to design approaches to practice that are based in technology.  Students develop technology solution options while (a) applying systems and decision making theories, (b) examining how data/information/knowledge can be quickly processed via technology to provide evidence for practice, and (c) examining the issues involved when using technology based solutions to human service problems.  Those completing the course will have the foundation knowledge to continually keep up to date with technology, which is important as they are frequently selected by agencies to head their technology planning and development efforts.  

Student Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

1.      View social work as a profession where decision making can be supported by finding, collecting, manipulating, modeling, and presenting data, information, and knowledge.

2.      Examine current human services software and telecommunications tools, such as an internet homepage & video meeting places, that can be used to support clients and human service practice.

3.      Understand the process of applying computer-based tools to a human service decision or situation.

4.      Critically examine the potentials and limitations of developing and implementing technology that supports a human service decision/situation of the student's choice.

5.      Experience use of the internet as a tool for learning, problem solving, and supporting practice, e.g., chat, voice chat, video chat, blog, social networking, etc.

6.      Assess the impact of information technology on social work values of social and economic justice, stakeholder participation, empowerment, and diversity. 

Format of Course

General information. This course uses a traditional classroom and a webcam classroom for teaching.  The webcam classroom may be used for classes sessions 3-13.  Attendance will be recorded and unexcused absences will result in a lower course grade (see grading). Other Internet tools (Web site, email, listservs, blog, social networking site, etc.) migh be used.  Since the Internet is in its infancy, technical problems exist. Students with slow or unreliable connections to the Internet may experience some technical problems in a webcam classroom. Some email accounts might strip attachments from emails.  Grade points will not be deducted due to technical problems. However, students are expected to make every effort to participate in class activities and to do make-up exercises if technical problems occur

Tool used:  Several technology tools will be used to illustrate their capacity to increase class communications.  The class will use a listserv mailing list called CSPCLASS.  Students will be added to the CSPCLASS listserv using their official UTA email address.  Those desiring to receive listserv emails at another email address should logon to the web using that account and go to http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/listserv.htm and subscribe using the other email address.  Students are expected to post information to CSPCLASS, and to regularly check for listserv messages.  The class will also use a blog for reflective learning for the first part of the course.  The course will use Adobe Connect as the webcam classroom.  Enter as a guest and use your name so classmates know who you are.  You will need to complete several technical tasks to become ready for the class and first webcam session.

Small group work:  To provide experience in working in online groups, students will perform some assignments in small groups, e.g., prepare for the class debate.  Also, several students may team up to work on the technology application project, parts A & B.  Students working in groups may take a group or individual grade. Groups may need to submit the contribution form

Guest speakers: Throughout the semester, we will invite experts from around the world to our online class sessions for approximately 30 minutes to discuss specific topics of interest. The class will select guest speakers several weeks in advance of their participation.

Individual consultation:  Expect to have at least two 15 minute or longer individual consultations on your technology application project during the semester.  These can be after class or via webcam or phone.  One meeting will occur in the formative stages of your application project and one toward the end of your project.  The focus will be on your learning needs and to insure your course project are correctly focused.

Experimentation: We will experiment with Internet software that allows groups to interact or perform specialized tasks via the Web or smartphone apps.  Students can also experiment with new software as part of the application review assignment. 


Prerequisite: SOCW 6371 is a co or prerequisite for CAP students.  SOCW 6325 is a co or prerequisite for DP students.  The course assumes a basic understanding of personal computers and the ability to access and use the Internet. Students should have: (1) a fairly recent computer, (2) cable or DSL Internet access, (3) the latest UTA supported version of Office (Office 2007 including SharePoint Designer), Internet Explorer, or FireFox.

Required Textbooks and Other Course Materials

Schoech, D. (1999). Human Services Technology, New York: Haworth.  Text is available free when registering for Calling Cards at www.husita.org

Articles and web sites will be added as the semester progresses and student's preferences are known.  All readings are available online from the UTA library.  Click on the SW e-journals tab on the homepage. 

Descriptions of major assignments

The class has the following assignments. (Numbers behind the assignments indicate the learning outcomes achieved)

  1. Weekly posting on a classroom blog.  A blog will be used for reflective learning and for experiencing the use of a blog.  A blog posting will be expected each week on the topic of the session.  Blog postings can be to the instructor's post or to the post of another student.  Blog postings will be part of the class participation grade.  The blog will also be used to guide class content. We will blog on classes 2-5 only.  Blog postings are due by 10am the day of class. Blogs entered from 10am until class starts get 1/2 credit.  Blogs entered after class starts will not receive any points.  [1, 5]

  2. Personal homepage:  In order to make the online class more personal, students will use Google Sites to design and publish a personal homepage by session 7.  See the assignment details page for further information. Students will provide feedback on others' homepages by class 9 using the homepage evaluation form.

  3.  Student reviews will account for 50% of the grade for the homepage assignment.  [2, 5]
  4. Application reviews. Students will review a "significant" (not trivial or fun) human service applications each week for the first weeks of the semester.  An application should be interactive, e.g,. you enter information and the application uses that information in responding.  Web sites that only present information to you are not applications, and if reviewed, will not satisfy this requirement.  Reviewing an application is considered similar to reading a journal article. You can find some human service applications to review at  http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/diskcopy/diskcopy.htm.   Applications followed by a * are acceptable.  Some human service vendors which may have demo downloads are listed at http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/courses/6355/links.htm#vendors   Find applications more appropriate to your technology interests if possible.  Many applications can be viewed from the web.  At least one application review must be of an agency information system.  Smart phone apps relevant to the human services can also be reviewed.  Submit reviews using the online form.  Try to submit your reviews on a weekly basis to get feedback on how well your reviews are completed and to avoid having to complete all the reviews right before the due date. Application reviews that are turned in late for insufficient reason will receive an automatic one point grade reduction (see grading section of syllabus points and due date)

  5.    Students can select from a list of generic applications that previous students found appropriate for review, but be sure to discuss their relevance to the human services in your analysis.  As an alternate to a human services application, students may evaluate an advanced generic application and to present the application's relevance to the human services in your analysis.  The generic advanced application must be approved by the instructor before the review is done.  To liven up the classes, one student may be asked to take the class to their favorite professional application URL and their favorite fun URL each week. You may want to set up a gmail or hotmail email address to use if the web site requests an email address for logging into an application.  This will allow you to ignore future unwelcomed solicitations from vendors.  [2]
  6. Asynchronous discussion group report.  Students will  join (subscribe to) a discussion group related to their interest and report the findings to the class.  These groups are often called discussion lists, listservs, bulletin board systems (BBS) blogs, etc.  The report will provide information such as the following:  topic, host, purpose, special rules and norms (if any), technologies used, effectiveness of the technologies for achieving the purpose, professional value, and how the technology could be used in their future social work practice.  Volunteers to report will be requested each week.  The exercise will be part of the class participation grade.  [2,3,5]  The following are Links to lists of listsfind others through using a search engine such as google and searching for topics such as "refugee discussion lists" or "refugee blogs":  Topicalistservs

  7. Technology Application Paper, Part A:  AnalysisStudents will explore the data/information/knowledge underlying a significant human service problem, decision or situation of their choice. They will then prepare a 5-10 page paper or web site covering theories and research relevant to understanding the situation/decision, the current technology needs of the decision/situation, and the capacities for change. The initial step is to make sure the focus of the paper is sound.  To do this, complete the Preliminary Application Project Focus form by session 5.  The Analysis Paper should have 1-inch margins, single-spacing, and be nicely formatted, with text no smaller than 10-point print.. Students working in groups on the analysis paper should submit approximately 5-10 pages per group member along with the group contribution form.   Sample papers are available.

  8. A form for developing a draft Part A, analysis paper is available.  Students should make sure their analysis  paper or web site meets the criteria in the grading checklist.  A consult with the instructor on the paper should occur at least one week before the assignment is due. [3, 4, 6]
  9. Technology Application Solution Informal DiscussionStudents will make a 5-8 minute ungraded class presentation of possible options, recommendations on how to proceed, and issues to address in order to solve the problem/decision/situation in Part A.  Following the presentation, the class will brainstorm on how to improve the options, any recommendations, and issues. 

  10. Technology Application Paper, Part B:  Solution DesignStudents will prepare a paper or web site containing the design of the technology solution options that builds on the capacities and addresses the needs described in the analysis paper.  You will not develop the solution, only specify solution options, recommend on how to proceed, and issues that must be addressed.  Part A should be shortened and included as the first several pages of Part B.  The paper/site will be 10-15 pages, (excluding cover page, table of contents, tables, figures, screen shots, and reference list) with 1-inch margins, single-spaced but nicely formatted, with text no smaller than 10-point print. Special permission from the instructor is needed for students to work in a group on the solution design paper.  Students working in a group on the analysis paper will develop individual solutions based on the analysis and write the solution design paper individually.   The solution design paper should be supported with references to the text, readings, URLs, application reviews, comments of guest speakers, etc.  A form for developing a draft Part B, solution design paper is available.  I will glance over completed forms to give general feedback.  Students should make sure their solution design paper or web site meets the criteria in the grading checklist.  [3, 4, 6]

Grading Policy and due dates



Develop a personal homepage (Due by session 9)


Application reviews (5 reviews at 20 points each) (Due by session 8)


Application paper Part A: Decision/situation ANALYSIS (Due session 12)


Application paper part B:  Decision/situation SOLUTION design (Due session 15)


Participation;  attendance at classes 2-15 (65), Blog entries (20 points for sessions 2-5); discussion list report (25) (Class discussion, discussion  group report, listserv resource sharing, helping others, etc. (40)


A=900-1000 points; B=800-899; C=700-799; D=600-699; F=less than 599 points.  Helping other students can earn you up to 25 points, see course homepage, extra credit assignments.



20Jan11, Session 1: Course introduction and overview

Classroom meeting.  Student introductions, course overview, mechanics overview, Course website overview, how to practice safe computing.  Feedback on how well am I doing.

27Jan11, Session 2: Information technology fundamentals

Classroom meeting:  Basic concepts of technology, information, hardware, software, networking, results of learner's needs assignment, discuss personal Web sites, learner's needs assessment using responses to the form provided,

Text: Ch. 1, (Scenarios-skim) Ch. 2 (Basic concepts/historical perspective), & Ch 9 (hardware and software) skim for basic concepts.

Reading:  O'Looney, J. (2005). Social work and the new semantic information revolution.  Administration in Social Work, 29(4). 5-34.  (available via UTA e-journals, see homepage link)

Schoech, D.  (2011). Community Practice in the Digital Age. In Weil, M.  Handbook of Community Practice. Sage (Draft to be distributed.)

Assignments: All students will: (1) review the class Web site (http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/courses/6355/), (2) do the tasks that need to be done before the first webcam session

3Feb11, Session 3: Current uses of technology

Online:  Internet tour of current uses of technology for policy, community practice, management, group practice, direct practice, and self help.   From the text, identify 2 applications that you think will be useful in your future practice. Discussion on how social workers currently use technology.  Review netiquette (net etiquette).

Text: Ch. 3 (Generic Applications), Ch 4 (Management Applications), Ch 5 (human services Applications) 

Reading:  Barak, A., Hen, L., Boniel-Nissim, M., & N. Shapira.  (2008). A Comprehensive Review and a Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Internet-Based Psychotherapeutic Interventions.  Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26(2/4), 109-160 

Reading:  Schoech, D., Basham, R., and Fluke, J. (2006).  A Technology Enhanced EBP Model.  Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 3(3/4), 55-72.

Assignment:   Suggest that application review #1 submitted.  Look at The Software Connection for possible applications to review.

10Feb11, Session 4: IT application development process

Online: The change process, information as a resource, system development process, successful technology transfer. Decide debate topics, schedule, and teams.

Text: Ch. 6 (Developing IT applications)

Reading:  Schoech, D., Interoperability and the future of Human Services (document provided)

Assignments:  Suggest that application review #2 be submitted. 

17Feb11, Session 5: Applying theory

Online: Discuss systems and decision making theories and their impact on system design.

Text: Ch. 7 (Systems and Decision Making Theories)

Reading:  Peng B. W. & Schoech D. (2008).  Grounding online prevention interventions in theory: Guidelines from a review of selected theories and research.  Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26/2-4, 376-396.

Review from 6371:  Theory at a glance, http://www.cancer.gov/PDF/481f5d53-63df-41bc-bfaf-5aa48ee1da4d/TAAG3.pdf

Assignments: Suggest that application review #3 be submitted.     One paragraph preliminary project description submitted before class via web form

24Feb11, Session 6: Determining human service information needs and capacities

 Online: Exploring how human service professionals view and use information and technology.

Text: Ch 8 (Human service information needs)

Assignments: Suggest that application review #4 submitted. 

3Mar11, Session 7: Hardware and software influences

Online meeting: The relationship of hardware and software to system design. 

Text: Ch 9 (Hardware and Software influences)

10Mar11, Session 8: Information storage and retrieval influences

Online: Generic and custom software, information acquisition, storage and retrieval needs.  

Text: Ch. 10 (Information storage and retrieval influences)

Assignments due: All 5 application reviews due. 

14-18Mar11, Spring Break 

24Mar11, Session 9: Networking and telecommunications influences

Online: Internet, Intranet, Web tools, developing Web applications

Text: Ch 11 (Networking & Telecommunication Influences)

Reading:  Review "From data to intelligence" from session 4

Web:  http://www.nrccwdt.org/xml/intro.html  Review this child welfare interoperability effort using XML

Assignments due:  Student homepage completed 

31Mar11, Session 10: Managing, supporting, and evaluating IT

Online:  System monitoring and evaluation, maintenance and support. 

Text:  Ch 12 (Managing, supporting and evaluating IT).

Podcast: KERA (THINK website) The Secret to Getting Things Right [2010-01-13 podcast] Atul Gawande, author of "The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right" (Metropolitan Books, 2010)  (23mb file so it takes time to download)

Assignments:  Analysis paper (Part A) or URL to web version of paper due via email before class.

7Apr11, Session 11: Issues and the future

Online: Issues, ethics, etc.

Reading: Finn, J. Bruce, S. (2008) The LivePerson Model for Delivery of Etherapy Services: A Case Study.  Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26(2-4)

Web:  NASW/ASWB Technology Standards http://www.socialworkers.org/practice/standards/NASWTechnologyStandards.pdf

Text: Ch 13 & CAS Contests BiotechUnion by Chip Henry and Virtual therapy: An interview a noted technotherapist by Kris. http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/fictfut.htm 

Assignments: Forms due for grading students' homepage. 

14Apr11, Session 12: Presentation of assessment and potential solution options for class brainstorming and feedback

Part A paper due by midnight of class day


21Apr11, Session 13: Presentation of assessment and potential solution options for class brainstorming and feedback

Assignments: Web form of Part B due for early feedback. 

28Apr11, Session 14: Independent work on papers.  CONNECT will be for answering questions about projects and possibly a guest speaker

Readings to be based on class projects, guest speaker, other activities. 

5May11, Session 15: Course wrap up, evaluation

Assignments due: Solution design paper or paper URL emailed before class.

Attendance Policy

Attendance at sessions 2-14 is worth 60 points, see grading.  Points may be granted for circumstances beyond the student's control, e.g., medical emergencies, court appearances, etc.  Work related excuses are rarely granted attendance points, e.g., requirements to work extra, attendance at training or conferences, etc.  Students should negotiate time off with their employers.  Requests for points for emergency absences should preferably be requested before class.

Drop Policy

Refer to university drop policy

Americans with Disabilities Act

The University of Texas at Arlington is on record as being committed to both the spirit and letter of federal equal opportunity legislation; reference Public Law 92-112 - The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as amended. With the passage of federal legislation entitled Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), pursuant to section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, there is renewed focus on providing this population with the same opportunities enjoyed by all citizens.

 As a faculty member, I am required by law to provide "reasonable accommodations" to students with disabilities, so as not to discriminate on the basis of that disability. Student responsibility primarily rests with informing faculty of their need for accommodation and in providing authorized documentation through designated administrative channels.  Information regarding specific diagnostic criteria and policies for obtaining academic accommodations can be found at www.uta.edu/disability.   Also, you may visit the Office for Students with Disabilities in room 102 of University Hall or call them at (817) 272-3364.

Academic Integrity

It is the philosophy of The University of Texas at Arlington that academic dishonesty is a completely unacceptable mode of conduct and will not be tolerated in any form. All persons involved in academic dishonesty will be disciplined in accordance with University regulations and procedures. Discipline may include suspension or expulsion from the University.

"Scholastic dishonesty includes but is not limited to cheating, plagiarism, collusion, the submission for credit of any work or materials that are attributable in whole or in part to another person, taking an examination for another person, any act designed to give unfair advantage to a student or the attempt to commit such acts." (Regents’ Rules and Regulations, Series 50101, Section 2.2)

Student Support Services Available

The University of Texas at Arlington supports a variety of student success programs to help you connect with the University and achieve academic success. These programs include learning assistance, developmental education, advising and mentoring, admission and transition, and federally funded programs. Students requiring assistance academically, personally, or socially should contact the Office of Student Success Programs at 817-272-6107 for more information and appropriate referrals.

E-Culture Policy

The University of Texas at Arlington has adopted the University email address as an official means of communication with students.  Through the use of email, UT-Arlington is able to provide students with relevant and timely information, designed to facilitate student success.  In particular, important information concerning registration, financial aid, payment of bills, and graduation may be sent to students through email.

All students are assigned an email account and information about activating and using it is available at www.uta.edu/email.  New students (first semester at UTA) are able to activate their email account 24 hours after registering for courses.  There is no additional charge to students for using this account, and it remains active as long as a student is enrolled at UT-Arlington.  Students are responsible for checking their email regularly.

A listserv will be used for course communications.  Students will be subscribed to the listserv using their UTA email address. It is the student’s responsibility to subscribe using another address if they desire and to check listserv emails. 

Since files will be shared during this class, students must keep their virus scanning software current.  Free antiVirus software is available from UTA, see link from the course web site.  Scanning your computer weekly is recommended.

Recycling and sustainability:  Please help our fragile environment by recycling this paper when finished, as well as plastic bottles, cans, etc., in the many recycling stations available in the building. 

Sustainability Policy

Please help our fragile environment by choosing digital over paper when possible and by recycling paper, plastic bottles, digital equipment, etc., in the many recycling stations available in the SSW building.  UTA also helps recycle old electronic equipment, see http://www.uta.edu/sustainability/.  Sustainability is a social and economic justice issue as those most vulnerable in our world suffer the most due to pollution and environmental degradation. 


For abstracts of all articles, book reviews, software reviews, and web reviews that have appeared in the Journal of Technology in Human Services, see http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/schoech/cussn/jths/titles.htm  Other professionals also maintain lists.  One good one is by Azy Barak

  1. Baskaran A., & Muchie, M., (2006). Bridging the Digital Divide: Innovation Systems for ICT in Brazil, China, India, Thailand and Southern Africa. London: Adonis-Abbey

  2. Cortés, M. & Rafter, K.M. (2007).  Nonprofits & technology: Emerging research for usable knowledge. Chicago: Lyceum.

  3. Cortes, M. & Rafter, K.M., (2007).  Nonprofits & technology.  Chicago:  Lyceum.

  4. Derrig-Palumbo, K & Zeine F. (2005). Online therapy: A therapist's guide to expanding your practice.  New York: WW Norton & Company.

  5. Dunlop, J.M., & Holosko, M.J. (Eds.) (2006).  Information technology and evidence-based social work practice. New York: Haworth.

  6. Finn, J. & Schoech, D. (Eds.). (2009).  Internet-delivered therapeutic interventions in human services: Methods, interventions, and evaluation.  NY: Routledge.

  7. Gerson, G. D. (2006).  Public information technology and e-governance: Managing the virtual state.  Boston: Jones and Barlett.

  8. Goss, S & Anthony K. (2003). Technology in counselling and psychotherapy: A practitioner's guide. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan

  9. Hsiung, R. C. (Eds). (2001).  E-therapy: case studies, guiding principles, and the clinical potential of the Internet. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

  10. Kraus, R., Zack, J. & Stricker, G.  (2003). Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals.  Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

  11. Maheu, M. M., Pulier, M. L., Wilhelm, F. H. & McMenamin, J. P. (2005).  The mental health professional and the new technologies: A handbook for practice today.  New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  12. Malone, J. F., Miller, R. M. & Walz, G. R. (Eds.). (2007).  Distance counseling: Expanding the counselor’s reach and impact.  Ann Arbor: Counseling Outfitters.

  13. Peizer. J. (2006) The dynamics of technology for social change: Understanding the factors that influence results. New York: iUniverse, Inc.

  14. Schiller, P., (2005). Information technology for social work.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.

  15. Stofle, G. S., (2001).  Choosing an online therapist: A step-by-step guide to finding professional help on the web.  Harrisburg, PA: White Hat Communications.

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