# Logic Model

A Logic Model is a series of steps or a diagram that illustrates how an interventions will build on strengths and reduce needs. A logic model presents the rationale and assumptions behind a human service program.  Logic models concisely present how a program is suppose to work.  It allows the reader to understand how the activities of a program will achieve its vision or goals.  It can also link outcomes back to theories and stakeholder needs/capacities.  Logic models can be a series of if-then statements or a systems diagram that illustrates the processes that transform inputs to outcomes.  A statistical regression model or a structured equation model (SEM) diagram is another form of logic model.  The format for an If-Then logic model might be:

• If need x has been documented to exist  in our community, and

• If need x results in problems y and z, and

• If research has shown that model programs with services a, b, c, have a good chance of reducing need x

• Then implementing a service with programs abc, which are designed after the model program, will reduce the need x and accomplish our vision.

# Examples of Logic Models

Logic models may be expressed in many ways, such as a diagram or a series of if-then statements.

## Examples of a logic models using an If-Then format

### Example 1:  Violence

• If teens typically have sex before reaching adulthood, and

• If society and male teens see sex as having few negative consequences for males, and

• If female teens bear most of the burden (poverty, school dropout) if sex results in pregnancy,

• Then societal attitudes are a major part of the reason why teen pregnancy rates are high, and

• Then a campaign for the equal sharing of the consequences of teen pregnancy by both parents will change attitudes, and

• Then society will require more male teens to equally shared the burden of teen pregnancy, and

• Then teen pregnancy will be reduced.

### Example 2:  Violence

• If violence is a condition that ranks Hostile as one of the top 5 violent communities in Texas, and

• If violence has been shown to destroy people’s sense of security, trust, and well-being, and

• If violence has been shown to be deter desirable companies from moving to Hostile, and

• If model programs exist that have been shown to reduce community violence by increasing social capital through building awareness, tolerance of differences, and neighborhood pride, and

• Then Hostile can reduce its community violence by implementing a model program that builds awareness, tolerance, and neighborhood pride, and

• Then Hostile can improve the security, trust, and well-being of its residents,

• Then Hostile will be a better place for its citizens and a more attractive place to move for desirable business.

### Example 3:  Exposure to violence

• If our community has a higher number of children exposed to violence in their home than similar communities, and

• If children are at risk of detrimental cognitive, emotional, and behavioral effects when exposed to violence in the home, and

• If batterers often use the children as a tactic to maintain power and control over their victim, and

• If research shows that batterers are more likely to file for custody, and

• If research shows that when batters file for custody, they win 70% of the time; and

• If increased access to legal services after leaving an abusive partner is the number one needed resource identified by victims of domestic violence, and

• If batterers find the civil justice system as a way to maintain control, stalk, and harass their victim, and

• If comprehensive, collaborative legal services programs have been shown to change the civil justice system from aiding the batterer to aiding the victims,

• Then civil legal services in our community can be changed to focus on the safety of the children and the victim, and

• Then a comprehensive, collaborative legal services program for victims of domestic violence will reduce the number of children exposed to violence in the home.

• Thanks to Christina-Coultas for this logic statement

### Example 5:  A more extensive logic model using if-then statements

1.      Condition to problem logic

1.1.    If many teens in today’s world are at risk for substance abuse, and

1.2.    If at risk teens can be helped with prevention interventions, and

1.3.    If individual attention is part of the key to effective prevention intervention services, and

1.4.    If high case loads make providing personalized prevention intervention services difficult, and

1.5.    If resources are not readily available to lower counselor caseloads, then

1.6.    Prevention intervention services are not nearly as effective as they potentially could be, and

1.7.    Then many teens are ending up with substance abuse problems which could have been prevented, and

1.8.    Then society is taking a treatment approach to substance abuse which is less effective and more costly

1.9.    Then a program that helps counselors take a more personalized approach to prevention using less resources is highly advantageous to society

2.      Problem to technology solution logic for Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention Services (SAPIS)

2.1.    If SAPIS require substantial paperwork, and

2.2.    If SAPIS that are individualized are more effective, and

2.3.    If SAPIS that are implemented with consistency, fidelity, and with the proper dosage have a better chance at being effective, and

2.4.    If pervasive, connected, wireless telecommunications and computer technology is the wave of the future, and

2.5.    If technology is a powerful information gathering and analysis tool which allows individualization, and

2.6.    If technology allows us to deliver programs consistently and monitor dosage,

2.7.    Then the application of pervasive, always connected, wireless telecommunications and computer technology has a good chance of increasing the effectiveness and quantify of SAPIS

3.      Program to intervention logic

3.1.    If many prevention intervention programs are focused on an increase in knowledge, and

3.2.    If research suggests that increasing knowledge alone is not as effective at preventing substance abuse as changing other core variables such as beliefs, norms, and attitudes, and

3.3.    If teen demographics, peer relationships, family supports, and other key intervening variables impact the capacity of teens to change knowledge, beliefs, norms and attitudes,

3.4.    Then programs that focus on knowledge, beliefs, norms, and attitudes of teens and involve the peers, family, and the community will tend to be more effective and

4.      User interface logic model for counselor

4.1.    If within the next 5 years, the telephone, internet, and video technologies will merge, and

4.2.    If most teens will have access to an internet connect cell phone within the next 5 years, and

4.3.    If most teens are self-motivated to play computer games, and

4.4.    If substance abuse prevention content can be successfully delivered via computer games, and

4.5.    If computer games can collect key information needed by counselors to help individualize prevention, and

4.6.    If cell phone collected data can be easily forwarded to a web site, analyzed, graphed, with risk and opportunities highlighted, and

4.7.    If most substance abuse (SA) counselors use an internet connected computer, and

4.8.    If most SA counselors can interpret line graphs with risks and opportunities highlighted to determine where to focus their limited time to have maximum impact,

4.9.    Then, having an internet enabled, game based, cell phone assessment and support system that collects, analyzes, and presents information on teens working on preventing substance abuse will allow them to see more clients more effectively.

### Example 6:  Logic model for a substance abuse program

• If drugs are promoted as a common event in people's lives, and

• If information on the difference between good and bad use and use and abuse is not readily available, and

• If the misuse of drugs is a major problem for a large segment of a society,

• Then drug abuse prevention must focus on knowledge about and attitudes towards drugs, and

• Then a television educational campaign by respected members of society will reduce drug abuse.

## Web Links to Examples of Logic Models

 Logic model information URL Logic model resources http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evallogicmodel.html Various logic model templates http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evallogicmodelworksheets.html An example of a Family/School Partnership Program http://www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/pubs/onlinepubs/rrb/learning.html