Research Interests

How is memory formed and retrieved in the brain? We focus on the topics including the neural correlates of memory, the effect of task requirements on memory, the role of contextual features on memory, and differences in associative memory processing between groups. For investigating these topics, we employ neuroimaging methods, brain stimulation methods along with behavioral methods.

Current projects:

  1. How is episodic memory formed and retrieved in the brain under different task requirements? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other neuroimaging modalities, we examine whether memory performance is modulated by the way that an item is encoded, the way that the item is retrieved, and the overlap between encoding and retrieval.
  2. What are the age-related differences in neural correlates of memory formation? The aim of this project is to identify age-invariant and age-different brain activity supporting successful encoding and to find changes in the interaction between attention and memory over ages.
  3. We are also interested in the effect of individual differences (mood, stress, anxiety, etc.) in brain activity associated with cognitive performance.


  1. Park, H., Leal, F., Abellanoza, C., & Schaeffer, JD. (2014). The formation of source   memory under distraction. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 10:40.
  2. Park, H., Abellanoza, C., & Schaeffer, J.D. (2014). Comparison of retrieval activity for associative and source memory. Neuroscience Letters, 581, 52-56.
  3. Schaeffer, J.D., Yennu, A.S., Gandy, K.C., Tian, F., Liu, H. & Park, H. (2014). An fNIRS investigation of associative recognition in the prefrontal cortex with a rapid event-related design. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 235, 308-315.
  4. Park, H., Abellanoza, C., Schaeffer, J.D., & Gandy, K.C. (2014). Source recognition by stimulus content in the MTL. Brain Research, 1553, 59-68.
  5. Park H., Leal F, Spann C, & Abellanoza C. (2013). The effect of object processing in content-dependent source memory. BMC Neuroscience, 14:71 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-14-71.
  6. Park, H., & Kennedy K, Rodrigue K, Hebrank A, & Park D. (2013). A fMRI study of episodic encoding across the lifespan: Changes in subsequent memory effects are evident by middle age. Neuropsychologia, 51, 448-456.
  7. Park, H., Shannon, V., Biggan J., & Spann C. (2012). Neural activity supporting the formation of associative memory versus source memory. Brain Research, 1471, 81-92.
  8. Park, H., & Rugg, M. D. (2011). Neural correlates of encoding within- and across-domain inter-item associations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2533-2543.
  9. Park, H., & Rugg, M. D. (2010). Pre-stimulus hippocampal activity predicts later recollection. Hippocampus, 20, 24-28.
  10. Reder, L. M., Park, H., & Kieffaber, P. (2009). Memory systems do not divide on consciousness: Reinterpreting memory in terms of activation and binding. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 23-49.
  11. Park, H., & Rugg, M. D. (2008). Neural correlates of successful encoding of semantically and phonologically mediated inter-item associations. NeuroImage, 43, 165-172.
  12. Park, H., Uncapher, M., & Rugg, M. D. (2008). Effects of study task on the neural correlates of encoding operations supporting successful source memory. Learning & Memory, 15, 417-425.
  13. Park, H., & Rugg, M. D. (2008). The relationship between study processing and the effects of cue congruency at retrieval: fMRI support for Transfer Appropriate Processing. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 868-875.
  14. Rugg, M. D., Johnson, J. D., Park, H., & Uncapher, M. (2008). Encoding-retrieval overlap in human episodic memory: A functional neuroimaging prospective. Progress in Brain Research, 169, 339-352.
  15. Park, H., Arndt, J., & Reder, L. M. (2006). A contextual interference account of distinctiveness effects in recognition. Memory & Cognition, 34, 743-751. [Lead Article]
  16. Diana, R., Reder, L. M., Arndt, J., & Park, H. (2006). Models of recognition: A review of arguments in favor of a dual process account. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 1-21. [Lead Article]
  17. Park, H., Reder, L. M., & Dickison, D. (2005). The effect of word frequency and similarity on recognition judgments: The role of recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 31, 568-578.
  18. Park, H., Quinlan, J., Thornton, E., & Reder, L. M. (2004). The effect of midazolam on visual search: Implications for understanding amnesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 17879-17883.
  19. Park, H., & Reder, L. M. (2004). Moses illusion, In R. F. Pohl (Ed.), Cognitive illusions: A handbook on fallacies and biases in thinking, judgment and memory. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.