related health effects and its detection
is a metalloid widely distributed in the
earth’s crust and ranked 20thmost abundant element in the earth.
element is included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s list
priority pollutants with an atomic number of 33 and an atomic mass of
74.91 and can exist in four valency states: -3, 0, +3 and +5. This
element has deleterious effects on human health through contamination
food chain or drinking waters. The health effects due to chronic
inorganic arsenic in the drinking water may manifest primary
features such as melanosis (pigmentation) and keratosis (rough, dry,
papular skin lesions), both may be spotted or diffuse along with
respiratory, neurological, hematological, cardiovascular, obstetric,
other factors. It is thought that chronic arsenic exposure may cause
multisystemic disorder. Ingestion of inorganic arsenic has been shown
even skin cancer, bladder, and lung cancer thus inorganic arsenic
is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as
past three decades, occurrence of high
concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water has been recognized as a
public-health concern in several parts of the world. Hence time to time
of hand tubewells, food crops, soil, plants etc. for the detection of
using low cost portable devices involving
technique, setup as well as robustness of the instrument is the
the hour and the group is involved in such work for almost a decade.
Flow Injection Electrochemical Arsine generation and gas
chemiluminescence generation (FI-EAG-GPCL)
Setting up the FI-EAG-GPCL for the
measurement of total arsenic
Optimizing the FI-EAG-GPCL w.r.t As(V)
Optimization the As(V) sensitivity using
porous membrane based GLS
Speciating As(III) & As(V) w.r.t the
difference in operating current
Validating the setup with real sample analysis
See Figure 1a for system schematics and Figure
1b photograph of the Electrochemical
Reactor and Figure 2; system response.
Study on the response of MCF-7 (Human breast cancer cell)
arsenic rich media
MCF-7 cells were treated with As(V) from
lower to higher concentrations
MCF-7 cells were treated with As(III) &
As(V) to check the acute toxicity difference
Understanding the tolerance of MCF-7 cells in
Understanding the mechanism of As(V) intake
with changing the phosphate concentration
Study on the efficiency of various designs Gas Liquid
plays a vital role in analyte transport to the detector. It
the signal intensity if the analyte is completely transported also a
factor in signal reproducibility. Different designs of GLS are made by
the size and type of the material used to check the efficiency as shown
in the Figure 3.
Online microwave digestion – ICPMS detection for measuring
in air samples
is been designed where the ambient air is drawn with the help of a
the intended metal ions which is to be detected is passed through a
digester and a real time was detected via ICP-MS.
Liquid Chromatographic coupled with GPCL setup for speciating
A post column gas phase
chemiluminescence system (LC-GPCL system) for separation and detection
inorganic & organic As species [As(III), As(V), DMA & MMA] in
environmental samples was developed. This set-up was employed to study
presence of various As species in soil and dust samples. Inorganic
the only species found in these samples. The LOD for the In sulfuric
acid-based extracts were 2.6, 1.3, 6.7, and 6.4µg/L for As(III), As(V),
dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA),
details about this study, please see …)
Gas phase chemiluminescence based analyzer with manual
inexpensive sensitive gas-phase chemiluminescence (GPCL) based analyzer
arsenic was developed which utilizes manual fluid dispensing operations
reduce size, weight and cost. The analyzer has a LOD of 1.0 mg/L total
inorganic As (peak height based, 3 mL sample). The system performance
after measuring arsenic in tap water samples from Texas and New Mexico
compared with results obtained by inductively coupled plasma-mass
(ICP-MS), and a high correlation was observed. This affordable approach
only applicable to water; it is applicable to soil extracts and likely
other matrices at a cost <1% of that of ICP-MS and still provide an
comparable with that from a large, expensive instrument. Very little
is required for this analyzer thus providing cheaper solutions for
arsenic in millions of hand tubewells heavily laced with arsenic in
like India and Bangladesh where capital investment into major
is harder to come by compared to relatively inexpensive labor. (For
Hydride generation – ICP MS method for total As measurement
(HG- ICP MS)
An automated hydride
generation (AHG) interface to inductive coupled plasma mass
(ICPMS) was developed for measuring total arsenic in environmental
This technique provides statistically indistinguishable response slopes
about 3%) for hydride generation-ICPMS (HG-ICPMS) analysis of all major
inorganic As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), momomethylarsonic acid
and inorganic As(V); this has not previously been achieved. Previously,
to convert all forms of As into As(V) has been a prerequisite for
total arsenic in complex matrices. Under our operating conditions,
arsenobetaine (AsB), until now regarded to be inert, also generates a
(albeit the response is only ~7% of others). The limit of
detection (LOD) based on three times the standard deviation of the
this technique for AsB, DMA, As(III), MMA, and As(V) is 90, 66, 63, 63,
As, respectively. This
AHG-ICPMS technique was compared with a flow
injection-UV photolysis-HG-ICPMS (FIUV-ICPMS) and liquid
chromatography-UV-HG-ICPMS analysis of arsenic content in National
Standards & Technology (NIST) standard rice flour (standard
material: SRM 1568a) and rice samples collected from West Bengal,
oxidative acid digestion and methanol: Water (1:1) extractions were
analytical results for total As in the SRM 1568a digest were 99.2 ± 0.6 and 100.2 ± 0.8% of the certified value (290 ±3 µg
by the AHG-ICPMS and the
FI-UVHG-ICPMS techniques, respectively. For rice extracts and the
two techniques provided results that were correlated with linear r2
values of 0.9988 and 0.9987 with intercepts statistically
from zero. (For details please see…)
Hydride generation-ICPMS for As speciation (LC-UV-HG-ICPMS)
the chromatographic columns (AG-23
HC guard, and AS-23 HC separator column) were used with a low-end
pump (DX-100). To accomplish step gradient elution, a four-input
was implemented under a programmable DVSP-4 digital valve sequencer.
gradient elution program started with DIW (eluent A) and switched to 4
Na2CO3 + 0.8 mM NaHCO3 (eluent B) at 2 min which was switched to 60 mM
30 mM NaOH (eluent C) at 8 min, all at 1 mL/min. At 15 min, the eluent
switched back to A; a new injection cycle begun after a 6 min
period. The LOD is estimated for AsB, DMA, As(III), MMA, and As(V) to
1.45, 1.77, 1.92, and 3.21 pg As, respectively. This set-up was
detect different species present in rice samples collected from As
areas. Chromatographic analysis
indicated that As in these rice samples were 75-90% inorganic. (For
details please see…)
for electrochemical Arsine generation and Gas-phase chemiluminescence
Set up the SI-EAG-GPCL for the determination
Constructed the electrochemical reactor (ECR)
Tested 22 different cathode electrode for
efficient arsine generation and selected graphite rod as the final
Developed an oxygen introduction set-up
required for the SI-EAG-GPCL
Optimizing the SI-EAG-GPCL system w.r.t
As(III) and As(V) sensitivity
The LOD was obtained 0.36 µg As(V)/L for a 5 ml sample
Validated the system by analyzing total As in
water samples and compared its result with ICP-MS.
A high co-linearity was obtained r2=
with a slope nearing unity was obtained while comparing the
SI-EAG-GPCL vs ICPMS results. (This work is under preparation for a
communication to a journal)
Figure 1a: FI-EAG-GPCL system
Electrochemical reactor; PS, power supply; PP, peristaltic pump; DIW,
water; AP, air pump; MFC, mass flow controller; OZG, ozone generator;
chemiluminescence chamber; PMT, photomultiplier tube; LT, liquid trap;
Figure 1b. Photograph of the
FI-EAG-GPCL system calibration using As(V)
standards at different concentrations
Photographs of different design Gas Liquid
as a Postdoctoral
Research fellow in the Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry of
of Texas at Arlington since March 2007.
Science from School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur
Thesis title: “Situation
of groundwater arsenic contamination problem and
Journal Of Environmental Engineering And Science
American Chemical Society (ACS)
of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)
York Academy of Sciences (NYAS)
Test for Lectureship award in June 2000 conducted jointly by CSIR-UGC.
from School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University,
presenter in a National Conference on Environment Education for
Sustainable Lifestyle, 10th-11th February 2006,
organized by Patna Women’s College, Patna, Bihar, India.
AAS: Both Perkin-Elmer
(Model 3100) and Varian (Model AA-20) AAS were
used for flame (especially for Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn) and flow
generation methods (for Arsenic only)
Scientific) used for multi elemental analysis, LC-ICPMS
for arsenic speciation
Invited speaker of
Columbia University's Superfund Basic Research Program - Columbia SBRP
Seminar Series, December 15th, 2008 and presented a talk on .
"Groundwater Arsenic Contamination: An Overview on Magnitude of
Calamity and Some Analytical Approaches for its Trace Level Detection
in Environmental Samples".
Attended joint Annual
meeting and Exposition conducted by Geological Society of America on
5–9 October 2008, in Houston, Texas and presented a oral presentation
on “A Green Fieldable Analyzer for Measuring Arsenic In
Conference on Environment Education for Sustainable Lifestyle, 10th-11th
February 2006, organized by Patna Womens College, Patna, Bihar, India.
conference “Arsenic Developing Country’s Perspective on Health,
Water& Environmental Issues” February 15-17, 2004, Dhaka,
Bangladesh and presented a paper on “Increasing trend in hand
tube-wells and arsenic concentration in affected areas of WestBengal,
India : A future Danger”.
conference “Arsenic Health Effects” February 2003, Indian Institute of
Cell Biology, Kolkata, India and presented a poster on “Groundwater
arsenic contamination in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain”
Mrinal K. Sengupta, Zafreen A. Hossain, Shin-Ichi Ohira, Purnendu
K. Dasgupta. A simple inexpensive gas phase chemiluminescence
analyzer for measuring trace levels of arsenic in drinking water. Environmental Pollution, 2010, 158, 252-257.
Mrinal K. Sengupta and Purnendu K. Dasgupta.An Automated Hydride Generation Interface to
ICPMS for Measuring Total Arsenic in Environmental Samples. Analytical
2009, 81, 9737-9743.
B. Nayak, M.M. Roy, B. Das, A. Pal, M.K.
Sengupta, S.P. De, D. Chakraborti. Groundwater fluoride
contamination in Berhait block of Sahibgunj district in Jharkhand
state, India and its effects on health. Clinical
Toxicology –Informa Healthcare, 2009, 2009, 47 (4), 292-295.
U.K.Chawdhury, B. Biswas, M.M. Rahman, A.B. Goswami, B.
Das, B. Nayak, A. Pal, M.K. Sengupta, S. Ahamed, A.
Hossain, G. Basu, T. Roychowdhury, D. Das. Status of groundwater
arsenic contamination in the state West Bengal, India: A 20 year study
report. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2009, 53 (5), 542-551.
F. Sawalha, Mrinal K. Sengupta , Shin-Ichi Ohira,
Ademola D. Idowu,Thomas E. Gill, Lila Rojo, Melanie Barnes, Purnendu K.
soil/dust arsenic by gas phase chemiluminescence. Talanta,
2008, 77, 372-379.
E. Sanz, R. Munoz-Olivas, C. Camara, M.
Sengupta, S. Ahamed. Arsenic speciation in rice, straw,
soil, hair and nails samples from the arsenic-affected areas of Middle
and Lower Ganga plain. Journal
Environmental Science and Health Part A, 2007, 42,
Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, M. A. Hossain, A. Mukherjee, S.
Ahamed, B. Das, B. Nayak, A Pal, and D. Chakraborti. Arsenic
of Cooked Rice: Traditional and modern methods. Journal
of Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2006 vol. 44, pp
Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Amitava Mukherjee,Sad Ahamed, Md. Amir
Hossain, Bhaskar Das, Bishwajit Nayak, A. B. Goswami andDipankar
Comment on “Limited temporal variability of
arsenic concentrations in 20 wells monitored for 3 years in Araihazar,
Bangladesh”. Environmental Science & Technology, 2006,
vol.40, No. 5, pp. 1714-1715.
Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Amitava Mukherjee, Md. A. Hossain,
Sad Ahamed, Mohammad M. Rahman, Dilip Lodh, Uttam K. Chowdhury, Bhajan
K. Biswas, Biswajit Nayak, Bhaskar Das, Kshitish C. Saha, Dipankar
Chakraborti, Subhash C. Mukherjee, Garga Chatterjee, Shyamapada Pati,
Rabindra N. Dutta, Quazi Quamruzzaman. Groundwater Arsenic
Contamination in Ganga – Padma – Meghna - Old Brahmaputra Plain. Archives
Environmental Health, November 2003, 58 (11), 701-702.
M. Amir Hossain,Amitava Mukharjee, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Sad Ahamed, Bhaskar
Das, Bishwajit Nayak, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, and Dipankar
Chakraborti. Million Dollar Arsenic Removal Plants In West
Bengal, India: Useful Or Not? Water
Quality Research Journal of Canada, 2006, 41 (2), pp.
A. Mukherjee, M. K Sengupta, S. Ahamed, Md. A. Hossain, B. Das,
B. Nayak, M. M. Rahman andD. Chakraborti.
Groundwater Arsenic Contamination: a global perspective with special
emphasis to Asian countries. Journal of Health, Population
and Nutrition (JHPN), Special issue on Arsenic,
June 2006, pp. 142-163.
S. Ahamed, M. K Sengupta,
C. Mukherjee, S. Pati, A. Mukherjee, M. A.
Hossain, B Das, B. Nayak,
A. Zafar, S. Kabir, S. T.
Islam, Q. Quamruzzaman, M. M. Rahman, and D.
Chakraborti. An eight-year study report on groundwater arsenic
contamination and health effect in Eruani village, Bangladesh and an
approach for its mitigation. Journal of Health, Population
and Nutrition (JHPN).Special issue on Arsenic,
June 2006, pp. 129-141.
S. Ahamed, M. K Sengupta, A.
Mukherjee, M. A. Hossain, B Das, B. Nayak, A. Pal, S. C. Mukherjee, S. Pati,
R. N. Dutta, Adreesh Mukherjee, R Srivastava and D. Chakraborti. Groundwater arsenic contamination
in middle Ganga plain, Uttar Pradesh-India: A future Danger?Science of the Total Environment, 2006, Vol. 370, pp 310
contamination and its health effects in
Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) Plain and its surroundings: a nineteen
years study. S Ahamed, A Mukherjee, B Nayak, A Pal, M K Sengupta, M A
Hossain, B Das, D Chakraborti. Chinese
of Endemiology 2007, Vol 26, No 1, pp 43-47.
Sad Ahamed, Amitava Mukharjee, Mrinal Kumar
Sengupta, M. Amir Hossain, Bhaskar Das, Bishwajit Nayak,Arup Pal,Subhash Chandra Mukherjee, Shyamapada Pati,
Rathindra Nath Dutta, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Quazi QuamruzzamanAnd
Dipankar Chakraborti*, Groundwater arsenic contamination and
its health effects in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain and its
surroundings. Trace elements in Medicine, May 2007 (in press).
M.A. Hossain, Mrinal
Sengupta, S. Ahamed, B. Das, A. Pal, and A. Mukherjee.
Adsorption studies with arsenic onto ferric oxide gel in reducing
environment: effect of matrix and speciation.Water Quality Research Journal, Canada, 2006, vol. 41, No
3, pp. 333-340.
17.M. Amir Hossain, Mrinal
Kumar Sengupta, Sad Ahamed, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Debapriya
Dilip Lodh, Bhaskar Das, Bishwajit Nayak, Bimal K. Roy, Amitava
Dipankar Chakraborti. Ineffectiveness and Poor Reliability of Arsenic
Plants in West Bengal, India. Environmental Science & Technology,
Ahamed, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Bhaskar Das,
Md. Amir Hossain, Dilip Lodh, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shyamal Kanti
Dipankar Chakraborti. A detailed study of the arsenic contamination of
groundwater and its impact on residents in Rajapur village of the
district Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Bulletin of the World
Organization, 2005, 83(1), 49-57.
Amitava Mukherjee, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta,
Amir Hossain, Sad Ahamed, Dilip Lodh, Bhaskar Das, Bishwajit Nayak,
Khitish Chandra Saha, Subhash Chandra Mukherjee, Shymapada Pati,
Rabindra Nath Dutta, Garga Chatterjee, Dipankar Chakraborti. Are
animals more equal than others? Toxicology. 2005, 208(1),
Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar
Sengupta, Sad Ahamed, Uttam
Kumar Chowdhury, Md. Amir
Hossain, Bhaskar Das, Dilip Lodh, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shymapada
Kaies, Ajoy Kishore Barua, Quazi Quamruzzaman and Dipankar Chakraborti.
magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its health
effects to the
inhabitants of the Jalangi one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in
Bengal, India. Science of The Total
338 (3), 15 February
2005, pp. 189-200.
Ahamed, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Dilip Lodh, Md.
Amir Hossain, Bhaskar Das, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy
Barua, Quazi Quamruzzaman andDipankar Chakraborti. Status
groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in a Gram
(cluster of villages) in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic affected
districts in West Bengal-India: A semi-microlevel study. Journal of
and Health, 2005, 3 (3), 283-296.
Mukherjee, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta,
Sad Ahamed, M. Amir Hossain, Bhaskar Das, Bishwajit Nayak, and Dipankar
Chakraborti. Comment on, “Reliability of a Commercial Kit to Test
for Arsenic in Bangladesh.” Environmental Science & Technology,
Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Subhash Chandra Mukherjee,
Shymapada Pati, Sad Ahamed, Dilip Lodh, Bhaskar Das, M. Amir Hossain,
Nayak, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shyamal Kanti Palit, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy
Barua, Khondaker Abdul Asad, Amitava MukherjeeandDipankar Chakraborti. Murshidabad
of the nine groundwater arsenic affected districts of West Bengal,
I: Magnitude of contamination and population at risk. Journal of
- Clinical Toxicology, 2005, 43, 823-834.
Mukherjee, Kshitish Chandra Saha,
Shymapada Pati, Rathindra Nath Dutta, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Sad Ahamed,
Dilip Lodh, Bhaskar Das, M. Amir
Hossain, Bishwajit Nayak, Shyamal Kanti Palit, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy
Kishore Barua,Khondaker Abdul Asad, Amitava MukherjeeandDipankar
Chakraborti. Murshidabad - one of the nine groundwater arsenic affected
districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: dermatological, neurological
obstetric findings. Journal
Toxicology - Clinical
Toxicology, 2005, 43,
Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Sad Ahamed, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Subhash
Mukherjee, Shyamapada Pati,
Saha, R.N. Dutta, Quazi Quamruzzaman. Groundwater arsenic contamination and
effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain. Journal of
Monitoring, 2004, 6, 75N-83N.
Chakraborti, Sad Ahamed, Mohammad M. Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Dilip Lodh,
Bhaskar Das, Mohammad Amir Hossain,
Subhash C. Mukherjee, Shyamapada Pati. Response to comments on “Risk of
contamination in groundwater”Environmental
Health Perspectives, 2004, 12(1), A19-A21.
Mahmudur Rahman, Badal Kumar Mandal, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Mrinal
Sengupta, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Dilip Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda,
Kumar Basu, Subhash Chandra Mukherjee, Kshitish Chandra Saha and
Chakraborti. Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People
North 24-Parganas, One of the Nine Arsenic Affected Districts of West
India: The Seven Years Study Report.Environmental
Science & Health, 2003, A38
Mahmudur Rahman, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Dilip
Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Kshitish Chandra Saha and Dipankar
Neuropathy in Arsenic Toxicity from Groundwater Arsenic Contamination
Bengal, India. Environmental Science & Health, 2003, A38 (1),
Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal
Kumar Sengupta, Dilip Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Shibtosh Roy,
Quamruzzaman, Hiroshi Tokunaga, Masanori Ando and Dipankar Chakraborti.
of Excretion of Arsenic Compounds [Arsenite, Arsenate, MMA (V), DMA
Urine of Children Compared to Adults from an Arsenic Exposed Area in
Bangladesh. Environmental Science & Health, 2003, A38 (1),
Subhash C. Mukherjee, Shyamapada Pati, Mrinal Kumar
Sengupta, Mohammad M. Rahman, Uttam K. Chowdhury, Dilip Lodh,
Chitta R. Chanda, Anil K. Chakraborti, Gautam K. Basu. Arsenic
Groundwater Contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: A Future
Danger? Environmental Health Perspectives, 2003, 111(9),
Chakraborti, Subhash Chandra Mukherjee, Khitish Chandra Saha, Uttam
Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal
Kumar Sengupta.Arsenic Toxicity from Homeopathic Treatment. Journal
Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology, 2003, 41(7), 963-967.
Chakraborti, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman,
Kunal Paul, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta,
Dilip Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Subhash
Mukherjee. Arsenic calamity in India and Bangladesh sub-continent –
blame? Talanta 2002, 58, 3-22.
Rahman, Debapriyo Mukherjee, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta,
Kumar Chowdhury, Dilip Lodh, Bhajan Kumar Biswas, Chitta Ranjan
Chanda, Shibtosh Roy, Md. Selim, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Abul Hasnat
Milton, S. M. Shahidullah, Md. Tofizur Rahman, Dipankar Chakraborti.
Effectiveness and Reliability of Arsenic Field Testing Kits: Are the
Million Dollar Screening Projects Effective or Not! Environmental
Science & Technology, 2002, 36, 5385-5394.
round the world. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal
Kumar Chowdhury, Dilip Lodh, Bhaskar Das,
Sad Ahamed, Debapriya Mandal, Md. Amir Hossain, Subhash Chandra
Shymapada Pati, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Dipankar Chakraborti. Book:
Arsenic in the Environment: From Soil to Human Health,Editor : Prof Ravi Naidu, Euan Smith,
Gary Owens, Prasun Bhattacharya, Peter Nadebaum, CSIRO publishing,
2006, pp 3-30.
contamination and its health effects in the Ganga – Meghna –
Brahmaputra plain. B. Das, B.Nayak, A. Pal, S. Ahamed, M.A.Hossain,
M.K.Sengupta, M.M.Rahman, S.Maity, K.C. Saha, D. Chakraborti, S.C.
Mukherjee, A. Mukherjee, S. Pati, R.N. Dutta & Q. Quamruzzaman.
Book: ISGSD Special Publication 1. Groundwater for Sustainable
Development- Problems, Perspectives and Challenges. Editors: Prosun Bhattacharya, A L
Ramanathan, Jochen Bundschuh, A K Keshari and C Chandrasekharan.
Balkema Book (Taylor & Francis). 2008; pp 257 – 269.
contamination and its adverse health effects in the
Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra Plain. D. Chakraborti, B. Das, B. Nayak, A.
Pal, M.M. Rahman, M.K. Sengupta, M.A. Hossain, K.C. Biswas, M. Sahu,
K.C. Saha, S.C. Mukherjee, S. Pati, R.N. Dutta & Q. Quamruzaman.
Book: Arsenic calamity of groundwater in Bangladesh: Contamination in
water, soil & plants. 2008. Edited by: Kingshuk Roy. Nihon
University, Japan. pp. 13 – 58
Contamination and Human
Suffering in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Mohammad Mahmudur
Paul, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Dilip Lodh,
Kumar Basu, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Shibtosh Roy, Ranajit Das, Quazi
Quamruzzaman, Dipankar Chakraborti.Book:Liu, C.Q., Zhao, Z,
Xiao, T and Guha, J (coordinators), Strategic Management of
and Socio-economic Issues. A handbook: Guizhou Science and
Publishing House, Guiyang, China. 2003, 102-111.
Exposure in India, Dipankar
Chakraborti, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta,
Mahmudur Rahman, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Dilip
Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Gautam Kumar Basu, Subhash Chandra
Kshitish Chandra Saha, Book: Arsenic Exposure and
W.R.Chappell, C.O.Abernathy, R.L.Calderon, 2003; Publisher: Elsevier
science, Amsterdam-Lausanne-New York-Oxford-Tokyo 3-24.